Welcome to the #AtoZChallenge on mental health, letter G. This was a pretty hard letter for me, so most of the words I chose are not specifically related to mental health.
There is an increasing interest in gender-specific medicine, ie. medical research and practice that takes into account how medical (including psychiatric) conditions affect women differently from men. For example, autism spectrum disorders and ADHD used to be thought of as typically male conditions whereas borderline personalitty disorder was thought to affect females primarily. It now turns out that many women have been misdiagnosed with for instance BPD when they really have an ASD and/or ADHD. The reverse is also true: eating disorders are stereotypically thought of as female disorders, so men with eating disordes often remain undiagnosed.
Men and women also differ in their treatment-seeking patterns. Women seek counseling more often, whereas men are overrepresented in psychiatric hospitals and are sectioned or taken into forensic treatment more often.
When DSM-5, the current edition of the psychiatrist’s manual, was being prepared, initially they wanted to use a dimensional diagnosis with genetics on one axis. However, they finally decided too little is known about the gentics of mental illness yet. Mental illness is not a purely genetic thing and it isn’t purely caused by life events. For example, when I studied psychology in 2007, there was some recent research into the interplay between a particular gene called the lazy MAO A gene and one’s upbringing in causing antisocial behavior. MAO A is an enzyme that breaks down certian neurotransmitters in the brain. When people have the lazy MAO A gene, they produce too little of this enzyme. This is linked to antisocial behavior. However, even if a person had this lazy gene, upbringing played a role in the risk for developing conduct disorder in childhood and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. The two factors together cause people to become antisocial.
Geriatrics is the branch of medicine specializing in older people and diseases of the elderly. Geriatrists may work in mental health care, but more often on units for people with neurocognitive disorders (dementia). The city institution I used to reside in had several units for older people, some of whch specialized in neurocognitive disorsers where behavior was particularly dysregulated. On these units, geriatrics and psychiatry are combined.
Everyone in the Netherlands (and other countries with socialized healthcare) is entitled to the care of a general practitioner (G). Most peope in long-term inpatient mental health treatment don’t have a GP where they used to live. I for one have yet to find a GP near the tiny village. Therefore, the hospital employs GPs. GPs in mental hospitals do not generally involve themselves with the patients’ mental health and psychiatrists do not generally take care of the patients’ physical health. In this sense, a GP in a mental hospital has a different role than in the community. In the community, GPs are the gatekeeper to all care whether it’s mental or physical, after all.