Tag Archives: Children

Anxiety and Depression in Children With and Without Autism #AtoZChallenge

Welcome to day one on the 2017 #AtoZChallenge on neurodevelopmental disorders. I experience a great deal of anxiety around this challenge particularly because, like I said in my theme reveal post, I am currently in the re-assessment process. On the day I published my theme reveal post, I received an E-mail from the clinical neuropsychologist in charge of my second opinion answering questions I had taken to my psychological assessment. One of them concerned depression. I have suffered from depressive symptoms since childhood. I pointed this out, in a way to reassure her that depression is somewhat normal for me and hence she didn’t need to pull out the major depressive disorder criteria. A reaction i did not expect, was that depression presents itself differently in children and for this reason it might be that in fact my challenging behavior was a symptom of childhood-onset depression.

I share this story because, for today, I am focusing on anxiety and depression as they relate to autism. I will start by sharing a bit about how these conditions present themselves in typical children, as it might be I’m not autistic or suffering from any neurodevelopmental condition after all.

Depression and Anxiety in Typical Children

Depression and anxiety are serious conditions that are different from normal sadness or worry. Common symptoms in anyone with depression or anxiety include negative thoughts, excessive worrying, diffculty concentrating, feelings of hopelessness or worthlessness. Particulalrly in youg children, depression and anxiety are however hard to recognize, as they may present differently than they would in older children or adults. For example, depression may show as irritability and anger, withdrawal, vocal outbursts or crying, or physical symptoms such as headaches or stomach problems. Anxiety can also present with physical symptoms or it may show as developmental regression. Some children with anxiety disorders may become clingy, fidget a lot or go to the toilet frequently.

It may be tempting to label a child who displays disruptive behavior, such as irritability, as “naughty”. However, treating behavior related to anxiety or depression like it is willful defiance, will only make it worse. Rather, if a child shows significantly more behavoral issues than their peers, it is advised to seek professional help.

Anxiety and Depression in Autistic Children

Many of the signs of childhood anxiety and depression are common in autistic children. It may therefore be hard to tell whether a symptom is due to anxiety or depression or it is due to autsm. For example, many autistic children (and adults) fidget as a way of regulating sensory input. Treating this and other sensory difficulties as anxiety will make it worse, as treatment for anxiety might include exposure. If a sensory stimulus is physically uncomfortable or painful rather than feared, no amount of exposure will cure this.

Social withdrawal is also a common sign of both childhood anxiety and depression and autism. However, to autistic children and adults, social interaction is often overwhelming, so again, withdrawal may be a coping strategy rather than a symptom.

Interestngly, some autistics may appear less autistic when they’re depressed or anxious. This may be the case if the autistic’s normal social interaction style is “active but odd”, eg. talking on and on about a particular topic without regard for the other person. For example, I once read about a teenage boy who usually kept on talking about trains. When he stopped perseverating on this topic, his carers assumed he was doing better. After all, he was showing less socially disruptive behavior. In reality, the boy was seriously depressed. He was, for him, withdrawn and had lost interest in what used to be a favorite topic of his.

J – #AtoZChallenge on Mental Health

Welcome to the letter J post in my #AtoZChallenge on mental health. This is one of the hardest letters – I mistyped it in the theme reveal. I’ve come up with just two words and they’re not very related.

Jobs

Mentally ill people are particularly likely to be unemployed. Like I said when discussing experience, some institutions create special jobs for people with mental illness to work as recovery or experience workers. These are paid jobs not suited for people in long-term inpatient care, although they are very suitable for people who have overcome a long-term institution life. People still in long-term care can become part of a recovery group. This is often seen as volunteer work and earns you around €10,- for two hours a week of attendance.

People who are long-term institution patients of course have to do something during the day. Some of these activities are simple industrial or administrative duties. At my old institution, these were purely seen as day activities and didn’t earn you any momey. At my current institution, patients doing this work earn like €1,- an hour. That’s still only a small percentage of what people in regular employment earn, of course – minimum wage islike €10,-. People doing this type of work often still call it their “job”. People doing creative day activities usually don’t.

Juvenile

Children can get mentally ill too, of course. I recently read that as many as 30% of children in the UK have a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. Now I assume this includes autism and ADHD, which are not always seen as a mental illness. However, among older children and adolescents is also a significant number of sufferers of depression, anxiety and eating disorders. Even among younger children, mental illness can happen. I even heard of psychiatrists specializing in infant and toddler mental health.

Most mental health agencies serve people of all ages, but there are also separate children’s mental health agencies, especially for inpatient treatment. Even those agencies that serve all ages have separate units and treatment teams for children and adolescents. In the Netherlands, after all, child mental health care is regulated by the Youth Act rather than the various laws regulating adult mental health care.

Mental Health and Art Therapy #Write31Days

31 Days of Mental Health

Welcome to day 15 in the #Write31Days challenge on mental health. I will resume writing about personality disorders soon, but today, I don’t have the energy to do my research. Instead, I will write about art therapy, which is a form of therapy that can be particularly helpful to people with mental health issues.

Art therapy is a creative method whereby art mediums are used in the therapeutic process. It obviously originated at the crossroads of art and psychotherapy. Sometimes art therapy is focused on the creative process itself. For example, today while in art therapy, I made polymer clay beads. Sometimes, art therapy focuses on analyzing the interaction between therapist and client while engaging in creative arts.

Many people use art therpay to express feelings they can’t express in words. For example, trauma survivors, especially children, may use art to express their feelings about their life and the trauma they endured. An example of this was mentioned to my high school class when we got an educational session on giftedness. (My school was a grammar school, where about 30% of pupils were gifted.) A gifted boy, when drawing the human face, always drew an angry face. Another example perhaps comes from myself. In high school, I often drew blue-eyed figures in cages. This was an expression of how I felt trapped by my blindness.

Art can also serve a symbolic step in the healing process. For example, sometime in 2014, I created a baby self out of clay. I put it in a box lined with soft textures to express that she was safe now.

Art therapy can also serve the purpose of having the client explore new creative media. In this way, it can be used to encourage people with anxiety or sensory issues to try out new things. For instance, I sometimes get to try new materials to explore the boundaries of my sensory and emotional tolerance.

The creative process can also be used to have patients step out of their comfort zones. For example, my art therapist and I have used a drawing exercise by which I’d draw a random pattern (I don’t have enough vision to draw anything meaningful anymore). My therapist would first stay at a safe distance with her felt tip, but would try to gradually move into my drawing space.

Lastly, art therapy can simply be a form of leisure or recreational therapy. The polymer clay bead making didn’t have much of a purpose, other than perhaps having me try to handle the feel of polymer clay. Then again, I came up with the idea of doing this. It is more just a way to learn new techniques to use in my free time.

In Which I Describe My Views on Euthanasia

Over at Bad Cripple, William Peace wrote an interesting post on assisted suicide. On my old blog, I had an entire category of posts on end-of-life issues, but here, I never discussed my views on euthanasia and assisted suicide as far as I remember.

I live in the Netherlands, the world’s first country to legalize euthanasia. Just days ago, I wrote on my Dutch blog about a book about a GP’s daily practice, in which he openly discusses euthanasia. I also read this book a few years ago that exclusively diiscusses a GP’s take on this topic. The subtitle of the book calls this GP an “euthanasia physician”.

Unlike Peace, I am not principly opposed to euthanasia or assisted suicide. I do realize there are people who are not pressured at all to kill themselves but want to die anyway. This includes people with a diagnosed medical condition as well as people who are “suffering life”.

I do, however, recognize the explicit and implicit discrimination in euthanasia-related law and ethics. People with terminal cancer can be euthanized if they so desire without much further ado. Infants with severe birth defects can be euthanized shortly after birth if the parents want this. However, a case where a doctor assisted in the suicide of a person who was “suffering life”, led to criminal charges.

The law in the Netherlands says, among other things, that a person must experience unbearable and hopeless suffering to be considered eligible for euthanasia. It isn’t stated that this suffering should be because of a diangosed medical condition. However, “suffering” is such a subjective, vague concept. Everyone suffers sometimes. In a society that is dominated by currently non-disabled people, however, it is a common assumption that people with disabilities suffer more than those without them.

As I said, I for one do not principly oppose euthanasia. It’s a much better, less painful way to end your life than conventional suciide methods. I do not say I advocate suicide – it’s a very sad, tragic thing. I also do feel that people who are suicidal need to be helped in every way possible to overcome these feelings. The thing is, we cannot fully prevent suicide.

What I do oppose is doctors suggesting euthanasia. About ten years ago, there was a case of a child born with severe spina bifida whose doctor suggested euthanizing the child. The doctor happened to be my former neonatologist, the one who said in 1986 that they were just keeping me alive and not to interfere, and who said in 2004 that he wonders about some preemies what the heck he’s done keeping them alive. The parents, like Heather Kiln Lanier and her husband (linked to in Peace’s article), believed the doctor was pushing them to consent to euthanasia, which led to a formal complaint. The doctor defended himself in the media, saying it was “just a suggestion”. Well, I do understand doctros have some say in euthanasia because they have to provide the means, but I think they only should be countering patients’ wishes when they do not want to euthanize them. Research on preemies, after all, shows that doctors are more opposed to aggressive treatments and want fewer preemies to be allowed to live than parents.

Speaking of parents, I mean no offense to Heather Kiln Lanier, but parents should not have the right to decide to have their children euthanized. As I said, newborns in the Netherlands can be euthanized under the so-called Groningen Protocol. Babies and children under twelve cannot, or maybe now they can, because the last time I checked on this topic was about a year ago. In any case, doctors are advocating allowing euthanasia on children under twelve with parental consent. You could say that a newborn does not have anything to want as they don’t have self-awareness (this is philosopher Peter Singer’s argument for infanticide). You could not say the same of a child. They may not have the cognitive ability to make informed decisions on medical treatment, but the darn well know when their parents want to have them killed.

I am almost anti-parent when it comes to this. Thankfully, parents like Kiln Lanier allow me to see how much some parents can fight for their children’s right to a fullfilling life with as little discrimination against them as possible. Kiln Lanier definitely respects her daughter’s right to self-determination.

My view on euthanasia basically comes down to this: no-one can decide for another person that they suffer so much that they should be “allowed” to die. Doctors only have the means to providde euthanasia, so they should be allowed to refuse to do it when a patient asks for it. However, they should never suggest a person be euthanized.

This does mean that children and people with cognitive impairmetns usually won’t be able to get euthanized. So be it. I’d rather keep a few people alive against their will than risk killing people who don’t want it. And just for your information, peoople with even the most severe cognitive impairments do have self-awareness, so sod your Singerian arguments there.

Not My Mother’s Daughter: How I’d Parent My Hypothetical Child

One of this week’s writing prompts from Mama’s Losin’ It asks how you parent your kids differently than your own parents parented you. Now I don’t have any kids, and if I did, I wouldn’t get my way on every parenting decision. After all, my husband would’ve been there too, and, the way he views parenting, he’d be the stricter one of us.

I imagne, if I have to be very honest, that my hypothetical child’s upbringing would be similar to my own. I don’t approve of many of my parents’ actions, but then again they were done out of powerlessness. I imagine, agian being very honest, that I’d be quite permissive to my child but would lose it eventually and become aggressive. This is one reason I won’t have any kids.

Ideally, if I had a child, I’d parent them as naturally as possible. I don’t mean eating all organic food and using cloth diapers, as I don’t believe in this. I mean guiding them through their natural development rather than teaching or training them. For instance, I have some strong opinions on toilet training, which some parents take very seriously. I of course know that the skill of using the toilet is important, but I also think that too much pressure will stress the child out. Having witnessed some incontinent adults being humiliated and pressured, I know I don’t want to subject my child to the same unless it’s absolutely necessary. I originally wrote a lengthy, TMI’ish monologue on toilet training and how I would and wouldn’t approach it, but I’ll leave you to read up on natural toilet learning to find out.

My husband and I have had discussions or debates about what education we’d want for our child. I am a traditonally-educated person and went to an academically challenging high school. My husband has had a less traditional route in his education, though he finally earned a high school diploma at the same level I did. Both of us would choose an education for our child that is different from our own, even though we agree that our child would never go to the posh type of high school I went to. I think if it’d come down to it, I’d want a challenging education for my child too, but my heart screams “No!” to pushing my child’s academic limits.

Now that I think on it, my heart screams “No!” at the idea of pushing my child’s limits in general. This may be one more reason why I’d make a bad parent, though I’m not sure. After all, pushing a child over their limits is different from feeding the fire of their curiosity (be it for academics or otherwise). I don’t know whether this is optimism about a child’s natural curiosity and capacity for learning. It could quite likely be fear of overburdening my child like I was overburdened.

Mama’s Losin’ It

“You Are Not Like My Child” #AtoZChallenge

Welcome to day 25 in the A to Z Challenge on autism. Wow, we’re almost done! Today, I discuss a statement often made by parents of “low-functioning” autistic children towards adults with autism: “You are not like my child.”

This statement is often used to discredit adults with autism who want to advocate against a cure or who want to advise parents against certain treatmets for autism. In a way, oof course, the parents are right, in that no-one is exactly like their child (not even that child’s hypotehtical identical twin).. Of course, parents have the right to make decisions about their child’s health, so it isn’t like an adult with autism has the right to make that decision (unless the adult happens to be the parent of an autistic child too).

However, this usually isn’t about adults trying to make decisions for other people’s autistic children. I for one recognize parents’ decision-making rights and I have never directly intervened in a parent’s decisions that I did not agree with. However, the parents in this situation often use these words to discredit autistic adults trying to advocate for themselves and their right to remain the best autistic people they can be.

I, in fact, have had people tell me that, unless I agreed that I was nothing like their autistic child, I should get a fad treatment to get cured of my autism. This disrespects adults’ rights to make medical decisions for themselves.

Another aspect in which parents and adults with autism have opposite interests, and in which this statement is often used, is representation of autistic adults in organizations like Autism Speaks and the Autim Society of America. It is a fact that thse and other such organizations have few or no autistic adults on the board of directors. Autism Speaks used to have John Elder Robison as a poster puppet, but that’s about it. In few other disability communities do parents say that adults with said disability cannot represent themselves, but in the autism community, it is a common idea. When Ari Ne’eman was eelect into the National Organization on Disability, parents everywhere protested. Now I for one do not agree with everything Ne’eman says and I do feel he’s a bit too inexperienced to serve on a government advisory board. However, I do not see why, just because he isn’t a parent, he can’t be on the board.

Let’s face it: we are not like your child. We are adults. However, autistic adults at one point were autistic children, and many had the same problems today’s autistic children are facing. Parents could learn from how we coped.

I do not say that there are no autistic children with an intellectual disability or who are non-verbal, but there are autistic adults with these challenges too. Also, if an autistic adult appears to function well now, it doesn’t mean they functioned as well as a child – or even that they function as well in real life now.

I consider myself a moderate mama on many debatable autism issues, but one thing I can’t stand is being silenced for being disabled. This is exactly what the “You are not like my child” crowd do.

Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) and Floortime: Two Autism Treatments #AtoZChallenge

Welcome to day eighteen in the A to Z Challenge on autism. Today, I will focus on two behavioral interventions for autism: relationship development intervention and Floortime.

Relationship development intervention (RDI) is a behavioral approach to helping autistic children reach the highest possible quality of life. The intervention was developed by Dr. Steven Guttstein. The basic idea behind the intervention is that dynamic intelligence, which is the ability to think flexibly, is required for a good quality of life. Dynamic intelligence includes the ability to appreciate different perspectives, cope with change, and integrate informaiton from multiple sources (eg. sight and sound).

The most important objectives of RDI are:


  • Emotional referencing: being able to learn from the emotions and subjective experiences of others.

  • Social coordination: the ability to observe and control behavior in order to participate in social interaction.

  • Declarative language: using verbal and non-verbal communication to express curiosity, invite interaction and share perceptions and feelings.

  • Flexible thinking: being able to adjust to changing circumstances and adapt one’s plans accordingly.

  • Relational information processign: the ability to put things into context and solve problems that don’t have a clear-cut solution.
  • Foresight and hindsight: being able to use past experiences to anticipate on future possibilities.


Autistic people usually have trouble in these areas, which leads to their autistic core symptoms. Typically deveoping children commonly learn these skills through interaction with their parents.

RDI uses the parent-child relationship to enable the child to master the skills mentioned above. An RDI consultant teaches the parents to modify their interaction and communication style in such a way that the autistic child will be supported to learn the missed skills.

I used to believe that RDI is the same as Floortime, but it turns out it isn’t. Floortime was developed by Dr. Stanley Greenspan and relies on the idea that, in order to teach a child functional skills, they have to engage with their parents, teachers or therapists. This is precisely where some autistic children have trouble, particularly those who are very withdrawn. In Floortime, the parent carefully intrudes the child’s play, following the child’s lead, and tries to engage the child.

So what is the difference between Floortime and RDI? An important distinction is that, in RDI, the parent takes the lead in engaging the child, whereas a parent who uses Floortime follows the child’s lead. Both approaches require consistency and follow-through, so as a parent, you most likely won’t be able to combine the two.

Communication in Autistic Children #AtoZChallenge

Welcome to day three of the A to Z Challenge, in which I focus on autism. Today, I want to focus on one of the core areas of impairment in autism: communication.

Children and adults with autism have problems in non-verbal and/or verbal communication. Some individuals with autism do not speak at all or speech development is delayed. Others on the surface have great speech with an extraordinary vocabulary, but have problems with the social use of language (pragmatics).

Some common problems with communication in autistic individuals include:


  • Rigid and repetitive language. People with autism may say things that have no meaning in the conversation they’re having. They may repeat the same words or phrases over and over again, or they may repeat what another person has said (echolalia). Immediate echolalia occurs when a person repeats what has just been said, for example, answering a question with the same question. Delayed echolalia means that a person repeats what they’ve heard earlier. For example, they may ask “Do you want something to drink?” whenever they want a drink. Some people with autism use what they’ve heard on television in regular conversation.

  • Talking in a high-pitched, sing-song voice or in a monotonous tone of voice.

  • Being able to talk about certain topics only. Some people with autism can hold lengthy monologues on a topic of interest even though they cannot carry on a two-way conversation on the same topic or cannot talk at all about other topics.

  • >Uneven speech and language development. Some children will not speak at all then start speaking in full sentences. Others will develop a large vocabulary about a specific topic of interest, as I said above. Some children can read before the age of five but do not comprehend what they’ve read (a condition known as hyperlexia). Some people with autism cannot speak but can type.

  • Poor non-verbal communication. Many peopole with autism avoid eye contact, though some can learn to stare at another person’s eyes to fake eye contact. People with autism also often won’t use gestures to give meaning to their speech, such as pointing to objects.

In order to help an autistic child reach their potential in communicative abilities, parents and carers will need to pay attention to a child’s strengths and needs. For example, some children will not use any speech but will be able to learn sign language or learn to communicate using a speech app.

When a child repeats other people’s words, usually at first it has no meaning. However, echolalia can be a pathway to communicaiton, because a child will often ultimately start using repeated word in communicative scripts that do have meaning.

There are many stratgies parents can use to enhance an autistic child’s communication development. For example:


  • Take on the role of a helper and teacher. When a child is still particularly non-communicative, it may be tempting to do things for them without asking whether they need help. It is better to ask whether the child needs help and give them an opportunity to try for themselves first.

  • Encourage the child to do things with others. Again, it is tempting to let the child be completely in their own world, because many parents view this as independence. However, autistic children (and all children!) need interaction to improve their communication. Try to join the child in whatever activity they’re involved in. When the child shows anger, this is a sign that they are interacting and it is better than no interaction at all, so persevere.

  • Slow down and give the child a chance to communicate. Many children with autism are slow to process information, so it helps to slow down. It is tempting to rush, because, after all, as a parent you can’t attend to the child 24/7, but slowing down will ultimately encourage the child to communicate.

  • Give the child a reason to communicate. If you give in to a child’s every demand immediately, they will not learn to interact. It is important to create situations in which the child is encouraged to communicate more than just their immediate needs and wants.


As the child matures and develops more communicative skills, it is important to move from the helper/teacher role on to a role of a partner and to even follow the child’s lead. That way, a child will learn increasing reciprocity in communication.

Four Things I Wish Parents Knew About Neurodevelopmental Disorders

A few days ago, Natasha Tracy of Bipolar Burble wrote an interesting list of things she wishes parents knew about mental illness. I am going to use this list as inspiration and write a list of things I wish parents knew about neurodevelopmental disorders.

1. Neurodevelopmental differences exist. Whether they are disorders, is a societal controversy that you as a family cannot solve. If your child exhibits behaviors that get them in trouble, you may view them as just part of their individuality. That is great! However, please note that your child’s neurology will not change by the way you view it. If your child gets stuck, that’s a sign that they need help whether you like to admit it or not.

2. Neurodevelopmental disorders are not your fault. Your child’s neurology is not something you caused by anything you did or didn’t do (unless you as the mother drank or used drugs during pregnancy). Whether your child’s neurology leads them to get in trouble at home or at school, is related to the interaction between their neurology and the home or school enviornment. You (and the school) can make positive changes there.

Most adults feel their parents did things during their upbringing they would’ve liked to be done differently. However, you probably do the best you can. If you start feeling powerlessness and exhibiting behavior you regret, it is time to seek support.

3. Seeking help is not a weakness. It is in admitting our limitations that we show our strength, in this sense. If your child is unmanageable, it is better to seek help than to treat them harshly or to indulge into their every wish. You are not a bad parent for needing help with your child. Again, the child’s behavior is a result of an interaction between their neurology and the environment. Especially if your child is having trouble in school too, this is a sign that it’s more their neurology.

4. A diagnosis is a label, not a verdict. Your child with an atypical neurology might need a diagnosis because of the need for services. This does not change who they are as an individual. Neurodevelopmental disorders affect children and adults of all intellectual levels and personality types, and there are so many different aspects to neurodiversity that no two children with the same diagnosis are alike.

Because of the way the school system worked when I grew up, a diagnosis for me would’ve been a verdict in a way. I hope this has changed now.

Mums' Days

Teaching Your Child Organizational Skills

Organizational skills are very important in learning for children and adults of all ages. When they are lacking, a person struggles in unstructured tasks or in completing work independently and efficiently. Usually, a child develops better organizational skills as they age, being able to meet age-appropriate expectations. Still, children with even the best of organizational skills may struggle with major transitions, such as the transition from elementary to secondary school.

Other children have difficulties in organizational skills. Some can learn to overcome these as they mature, while others lag further and further behind. I am an example of the latter. In elementary school, I aced most classes, compensating for my lack of organizational skills by my high intelligence. In secondary school, I still did well because I had learned to read faster. I could therefore read the material being tested once at the last moment and still get a decent grade. Academically, my organizational skills didn’t get the better part of me till I was in college, when one reason I dropped out was my inability to plan my work.

Organizational skills are part of executive functioning. If a child struggles with organizational skills despite adequate parenting and teaching intervetnions, it might be that they have a learning disability or attention deficit disorder, but some kids have executive functioning difficulties without a learning disability or ADD/ADHD.

Here are some tips for encouraging the non-disabled child to develop their organizational skills. Some of these strategies will work to an extent with children with executive functioning difficulties too. At the end of this post, I will give some tips for dealing with kids with executive functioning difficulties specifically.

1. Use checklists. Help your child develop a to-do list. That way, the child will be able to visualize what they stll need to do and what they’ve already done. Have your child carry a notebook with them for writing down assignmnets and household chores. Have the child check off items that have been completed. You may need to monitor that they don’t check off unfinished tasks. You can have your child use step-by-step checklists for cleaning their room, too.

2. Use calendars and schedules. On a calendar, you will put all family members’ important appointments. It depends on you and your child how detailed a calendar needs to be or can be. On a weekly schedule, you list each family member’s household chores.

3. Buy your child a planner. Have them choose one that suits them or buy one for them that appeals to them. The child can put activities into their planner, but you’ll need to help them get their planner in sync with the family calendar to avoid conflict.

4. Involve your child in cleaning and cooking activities. Particurly cooking is a fun way to learn organizational skills. A child will need to learn to read a recipe, check steps they have already completed, assemble the right tools and ingredients, etc. Involve your child in meal planning too, challenging them to help you write a shopping list. Cleaning, while not as fun, is a necessary task that also requires organization.

As I said, many of these strategies will work for a child with executive functioning difficulties too. They may need more support while learning to organize their day. Here are some tips for helping a child with EFD to learn to become the best organizer they can be:


  1. Use written and/or visual step-by-step guides for chores and assignments. Incorporate as much detail as the child needs – I needed every step almost literally spelled out.

  2. Have specific tasks on a specific day of the week. Don’t have too many tasks in one day. For example, Monday is for cleaning the child’s room, while Thursday is for organizing their backpack. That way, the child will get into the habit of performing these tasks.

  3. Discuss new or unexpected situations with your child and help them prepare for what might happen.

  4. Repeat, repeat, repeat. Often, children with EFD have trouble learning to automate a skill, so you may need to help them, instruct them and supervise them for a longer time than you would a non-disabled child. Use the same schedules, reminders etc. for the same tasks over and over again.


It is very important to realize that your child with EFD is not being lazy, but they have a disability that makes it harder for them to organie their work. You may need to provide more support for them to complete their chores or homework than you would a similar-age non-disabled child.

Mommy Needs a Timeout Thursday Link-up