Autistics often have symptoms of ADHD. These symptoms are often treated with medication. About 15% of autistic children take psychostimulants or atomoxetine (Rosenberg et al, 2010). Stimulants are proven to be effective for ADHD in non-autistic children. Whether the same holds true for autistics, however, had not been systematically researched until now. Reichow, Volkmar & Bloch (2013) examined seven randomized, double=blind, placebo-controlled studies comparing methylphenidate, clonidine or atomoxetine to placebo in children with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD symptoms. Four trials were found for methylphenidate, two for atomoxetine and one for clonidine.
According to Reichow et al. (2013), methylphenidate was found to be effective for ADHD symptoms in autistic children. The effectiveness was slightly lower than it is for typically developing children with ADHD but still statistically significant. There was a greater risk of side effects in autistics, particularly for irritability, depression and withdrawal. The risk for common side effects such as insomnia and decreased appetite was similar to that found in typically developing children. One of the studies involved preschool children, and it was recommended by Reichow et al. after reviewing this study that methylphenidate-taking preschoolers with autis be closely monitored due to increased adverse events.
Clonidine and atomoxetine both showed moderate but not statistically significant effectiveness in autistic children (Reichow et al., 2013). These medications warrant further study, also given the fact that only one or two studies were found that met the inclusion criteria for a systematic review.
Reichow B, Volkmar FR, & Bloch MH (2013), Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Pharmacological Treatment of the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Pervasive Developmenetal Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(10):2435-2441. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-013-1793-z.
Rosenberg R, Mandell BS, Farmer JE, Law JK, Marvin AR, & Law PA (2010). Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Enrolled in a National Registry, 2007-2008. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(3):342-351. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-009-0878-1.